Heads of Departments Leadership Styles, Work Climate and Organizational Commitment Enhance the Job Performance of University Lecturers
Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government,
2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1850-1858
AbstractFor survival in the environment and increase organizational success it is mandatory for any organization to focus on enhancing employees’ job performance. The main objective of this study was to determine the correlation of leadership styles, work climate and organizational commitment with job performance. The public universities lecturers were selected as population of the study while 339 lecturers were administered as a sample for this study through stratified random sampling technique. Data was collected by using standardized questionnaire through survey method. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS-25) was adopted to analyse the data according to the proposed hypothesis. It was concluded that the constructs such as; leadership styles, work climate and organizational commitment are the predictor to boostjob performance of lecturers.
- Akhbari, M. S., Oreyzi, H., &Alavi, S. K. (2010). Relationship Between Organizational Commitment And Its Dimensions With Occupational Commitment Among Isfahan Province Oil Refinery Personnel.
- Al Zefeiti, S. M. B., &Mohamad, N. A. (2017).The Influence of organizational commitment on Omani public employees’ work performance. International Review of Management and Marketing, 7(2), 151-160.
- Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990).The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(1), 1-18.
- Andriani, S., Kesumawati, N., &Kristiawan, M. (2018).The Influence of the Transformational Leadership and Work Motivation on Teachers Performance. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 7(7), 19-29.
- Angle H. L., & Lawson M. B. (1994). Organizational commitment and employees’
performance rating: Both type of commitment and type of performance count. Psychol. Report, 75, 1539-1551.
- Ardakani, A. E., Jowkar, B., &Mooghali, A. (2012).The effect of organizational environment on performance and job satisfaction (Case Study of Shiraz University). Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 2(8), 8130-8139.
- Asaari, A. H., &Hasmi, M. (2012). Academic leadership and work-related attitude (Doctoral dissertation, University of Hull).
- Bass, B. M., &Avolio, B. J. (1997).Full Range Leadership Development: Manual for theMultifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Mind Garden Inc., Redwood City.
- Bass, B. M., &Avolio, B.J. (1990). Developing Transformational Leadership: 1992 and Beyond. Journal of European Industrial Training, 14(5), 21-27.
- Bass, B. M., Avolio, B. J., Jung, D. I., &Berson, Y. (2003).Predicting unit performance by assessing transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of applied psychology, 88(2), 207.
- Bass, B.M., &Avolio, B.J. (1995).The Multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ).
Redwood City, CA: Mind Garden
- Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper and Row Publishers.
- Cheng, Y., &Kalleberg, A. L. (1996).Employee job performance in Britain and the United States. Sociology, 30(1), 115-129.
- Chin, W. W. (2010). How to write up and report PLS analyses. In Handbook of partial least squares (pp. 655-690). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
- Clarke, S. (2006). The relationship between safety climate and safety performance: a meta-analytic review. Journal of occupational health psychology, 11(4), 315-327.
- Colquitt, J. A., Noe, R. A., & Jackson, C. L. (2002). Justice in teams: Antecedents and consequences of procedural justice climate. Personnel psychology, 55(1), 83-109.
- Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31(6), 874-900.
- Daniel, F., &Purwanti, A. (2015). The Impact Of Organizational Culture And Job Satisfaction To Organizational Commitment And Employees’ Job Performance (An Empirical Study at A University in Tangerang). In Asia-Pacific Management Accounting Association (APMAA) Annual Conference At: Bali, Indonesia (pp. 1-18).
- De Clercq, D., &Rius, I. B. (2007). Organizational commitment in Mexican small and medium‐sized firms: the role of work status, organizational climate, and entrepreneurial orientation. Journal of Small Business Management, 45(4), 467-490.
- DeConinck, J. B. (2010). The effect of organizational justice, perceived organizational support, and perceived supervisor support on marketing employees' level of trust. Journal of Business Research, 63(4), 1349-1355.
- Deem, R., Mok, K. H., & Lucas, L. (2008). Transforming higher education in whose image? Exploring the concept of the ‘world-class’ university in Europe and Asia. Higher education policy, 21(1), 83-97.
- DeGroot, T., Kiker, D. S., & Cross, T. C. (2000). A meta‐analysis to review organizational outcomes related to charismatic leadership. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l'Administration, 17(4), 356-372.
- Dietz, J., Pugh, S. D., & Wiley, J. W. (2004). Service climate effects on customer attitudes: An examination of boundary conditions. Academy of management journal, 47(1), 81-92.
- Dinc, M. S., &Aydemir, M. (2014). The effects of ethical climate and ethical leadership on employee attitudes: Bosnian case. International Journal of Management Sciences, 2(9), 391-405.
- Dvir, T., Eden, D., Avolio, B. J., & Shamir, B. (2002). Impact of transformational leadership on follower development and performance: A field experiment. Academy of management journal, 45(4), 735-744.
- Ehrhart, M. G. (2004). Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit‐level organizational citizenship behavior. Personnel psychology, 57(1), 61-94.
- Ferris, K. R., &Aranya, N. (1983).A comparison of two organizational commitment
scales.Personal Psychology 36(1), 87–101.
- Fiedler, F.E., & House, R.J. (1988). Leadership Theory and Research: A Report of
Progress. International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology,
19 (88), 73- 91.
- Folorunso, O. O., Adewale, A. J., &Abodunde, S. M. (2014).Exploring the effect of organizational commitment dimensions on employees performance: An empirical evidence from Academic Staff of Oyo State Owned Tertiary Institutions, Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 4(8), 275.
- Fullwood, R., Rowley, J. and Delbridge, R. (2013). Knowledge sharing amongst academics in UKuniversities”, Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 17 No. 1, pp. 123-136
- Ghavifekr, S. and Ibrahim, M.S. (2014).Head of departments’ instructional supervisory role andteachers’ job performance: teachers’ perceptions”, Asian Journal of Social Sciences andManagement Studies, Vol. 1 No. 2, pp. 45-56.
- Goodman, S. A., &Svyantek, D. J. (1999). Person-organization fit and contextual performance: Do shared values matter. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 55(2), 254-275.
- Götz, O., Liehr-Gobbers, K., &Krafft, M. (2010). Evaluation of structural equation models using the partial least squares (PLS) approach Handbook of partial least squares (691-711). Berlin: Springer.
- Hackett, R. D., Bycio, P., &Hausdorf, P. A. (1994).Further assessments of Meyer and Allen's (1991) three-component model of organizational commitment. Journal of applied psychology, 79(1), 15-23.
- Hager, M., &Seibt, T. (2018).The relationship between work-related behavior and experience patterns and organizational commitment.In Eurasian Business Perspectives (pp. 291-303).Springer, Cham.
- Hair, J. F., Money, A. H., Samouel, P., & Page, M. (2007).Research Methods for Business.Education + Training, 49(4), 336-337. doi: doi:10.1108/et.2007.49.
- Handajani, S., Rahayu, I. A. T., &Pritasari, O. K. (2017).Influence of Motivation and Competence Factor on Lecturers' Performance in UniversitasNegeri Surabaya.In 1st International Conference on Social, Applied Science and Technology in Home Economics (ICONHOMECS 2017).Atlantis Press.
- Haryono, S. (2018).The Effects of Good University Governance and Organizational Culture toward Lecturer Performance and Its Influence on Private Universities Performance in the City of Lampung.
- Haryono, S., Ambarwati, Y. I., &Saad, M. S. M. (2019). Do organizational climate and organizational justice enhance job performance through job satisfaction? A study of Indonesian employees. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 18(1), 1-6.
- Hashim, R., &Shawkataly, R. H. (2017). Academics Performance In Malaysian Public Universities. PressAcademiaProcedia, 4(1), 261-264.
- Hater, J.J., & Bass, B.M. (1988).Superiors’ evaluations and subordinates perceptions of transformational and transactional leadership.Journal of Applied Psychology, 20(1), 695-702.
- Horwitz, I. B., Horwitz, S. K., Daram, P., Brandt, M. L., Brunicardi, F. C., &Awad, S. S. (2008). Transformational, transactional, and passive-avoidant leadership characteristics of a surgical resident cohort: analysis using the multifactor leadership questionnaire and implications for improving surgical education curriculums. Journal of Surgical Research, 148(1), 49-59.
- Huselid, M. A., & Day, N. E. (1991). Organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover: A substantive and methodological analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(3), 380.
- Iqbal, A., Tufail, M. S., &Lodhi, R. N. (2015).Employee loyalty and organizational
commitment in Pakistani organizations.Global Journal of Human Resource
Management, 3(11), 1-11
- Jabbar, M. N. &Hussin, F. (2019).Quality Management as a Strategic Tool to Enhance the Relationship between Leaders’ Behavior and Lecturers’ Job Satisfaction.International Journal of Higher Education.8(3). 36-46
- Jabbar, M. N., Hussin, F. &Nazli, M. (2020).Intervening Coherence of Quality Management and Empowerment on the Relationship between Leader Behavior and Job Satisfaction among University Lecturers, International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 11(5), 27-48.
- Jabbar, M. N., Mahmood, W. &Qambar, G. (2020).Mediating Role of Organizational Commitment and Work Environment on the Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Job Satisfaction.Talent Development and Excellence, 12(2s), 3974-3988.
- Jiang, H., Chen, Y., Sun, P., & Yang, J. (2017). The relationship between Authoritarian leadership and employees’ deviant workplace behaviours: The mediating effects of psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 732-712.
- Johns, G. (2006). The essential impact of context on organizational behavior. Academy of management review, 31(2), 386-408.
- Jung, D. I., &Avolio, B. J. (1999).Effects of leadership style and followers' cultural orientation on performance in group and individual task conditions. Academy of management journal, 42(2), 208-218.
- Jusmin, A., Said, S., Bima, M. J., &Alam, R. (2016). Specific determinants of work motivation, competence, organizational climate, job satisfaction and individual performance: A study among lecturers. Journal of Business and Management Sciences, 4(3), 53-59.
- Koh, W. L., Steers, R. M., &Terborg, J. R. (1995). The effects of transformational leadership on teacher attitudes and student performance in Singapore. Journal of organizational behavior, 16(4), 319-333.
- Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and psychological measurement, 30(3), 607-610.
- Lai, F. Y., Tang, H. C., Lu, S. C., Lee, Y. C., & Lin, C. C. (2020). Transformational Leadership and Job Performance: The Mediating Role of Work Engagement. SAGE Open, 10(1), 2158244019899085.
- Lehman, W., & Simpson, D. (1992).Employee substance use and on-the job behaviors.Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 309-321.
- Leithwood, K., Jantzi, D. and Steinbach, R. (1999). Do schools councils matter? Educational Policy. Vol. 13 No. 4, pp. 467-493
- Leroy, H., Palanski, M. E., & Simons, T. (2012).Authentic leadership and behavioral integrity as drivers of follower commitment and performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 107(3), 255-264.
- Limsila, K., &Ogunlana, S. O. (2008). Performance and leadership outcome
correlates of leadership styles and subordinate commitment. Engineering,
Construction and Architectural Management, 15(2),164-184.
- Luthans, F. (2006).Organizational behavior. New York: McGraw Hill International Editions.
- MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Rich, G. A. (2001).Transformational and transactional leadership and salesperson performance. Journal of the academy of Marketing Science, 29(2), 115-134.
- Mansoor, Z. (2015). The Paradigm Shift: Leadership Challenges in the Public Sector Schools in Pakistan. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(19), 203-211.
- Martin, K. D., & Cullen, J. B. (2006). Continuities and extensions of ethical climate theory: A meta-analytic review. Journal of business ethics, 69(2), 175-194.
- McColl-Kennedy, J. R., & Anderson, R. D. (2002).Impact of leadership style and emotions on subordinate performance. The leadership quarterly, 13(5), 545-559.
- McKay, P. F., Avery, D. R., & Morris, M. A. (2008). Mean racial-ethnic differences in employee sales performance: The moderating role of diversity climate. Personnel Psychology, 61 (2), 349-374.
- Meyer, J. P., Paunonen, S. V., Gellatly, I. R., Goffin, R. D., & Jackson, D. N. (1989). Organizational commitment and job performance: It's the nature of the commitment that counts. Journal of applied Psychology, 74(1), 152-156.
- Mohamed, H. A., &Gaballah, S. (2018). Study of the relationship between organizational climate and nurses' performance: A University Hospital Case. American Journal of Nursing Research, 6(4), 191-197.
- Mohammad, J., QuoquabHabib, F., & Alias, M. A. (2011). Job Satisfaction and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour: an Empirical Study at Higher Learning Institutions. Asian Academy of Management Journal, 16(2), 149-165.
- Noraazian, O., &Khalip, Musa (2016).The impact of transformational leadership and teacher commitment in Malaysian public schools.International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 26 (11), 388-397.
- Organ, D., Podsakoff, P., &MacKenzie, S. (2006). Organizational citizenship behavior.SagePublications Series.
- Othman, J., Mohammed, K. A., &D'Silva, J. L. (2013). Does a transformational and transactional leadership style predict organizational commitment among public university lecturers in Nigeria?. Asian Social Science, 9(1), 165.
- Panda, S., Pandey, S. C., Bennett, A., &Tian, X. (2019). University Brand Image as Competitive Advantage: A Two-Country Study. International Journal of Educational Management, 33(2), 234-251.
- Pedraja-Rejas, L., Rodríguez-Ponce, E., Delgado-Almonte, M., & Rodríguez-Ponce, J. (2006). Transformational and transactional leadership: A study of their influence in small companies. Ingeniare.Revistachilena de ingeniería, 14(2), 159-166.
- Raji, I. A., Aliyu, M. K., & Abu, M. A. (2019). Training And Development, Job Satisfaction, Perceived Organisational Support And Job Performance Of Public Primary Schools Teachers In Nigeria. Fountain University Osogbo Journal Of Management, 3(3).
- Ribeiro, N., Yücel, İ., & Gomes, D. (2018). How transformational leadership predicts employees’ affective commitment and performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 67(9), 1901-1917.
- Rizal, M., Idrus, M. S., Djumahir, &Mintarti R. (2014).Effect of compensation on motivation, organizational commitment and employee performance (Studies in local revenue management in Kendari City).International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 3(2), 64-79.
- Selamat, N., Samsu, N. Z., &Kamalu, N. S. M. (2013).The impact of organizational climate on teachers’ job performance.Educational Research eJournal, 2(1), 71-82.
- Sprecher, S. (1988).Investment model, equity, and social support determinants of relationship commitment. Social psychology quarterly.51(4), 318-328.
- Steers, R. M. (1975).Problems in the measurement of organizational effectiveness. Administrative science quarterly, 20 (4), 546-558.
- Suliman, A., & Iles, P. (2000). Is continuance commitment beneficial to organizations? Commitment-performance relationship: a new look. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15 (5), 407–422.
- Tabachnick, B., &Fidell, L. (2007).Multivariate analysis of variance and covariance.Using multivariate statistics, 3, 402-407.
- Torlak, N. G., &Kuzey, C. (2019). Leadership, job satisfaction and performance links in private education institutes of Pakistan. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 68(2), 276-295.
- Tremblay, M., &Simard, G. (2018). A multifoci approach to study social support and job performance: A target similarity consideration of development-enhancing practices, leadership, and structure. Journal of Business Research, 92, 118-130.
- Uddin, M. A., Rahman, M. S., &Howlader, M. H. R. (2014).Exploring the relationships among transformational leadership, deviant workplace behavior, and job performance: An empirical study. ABAC Journal, 34(1), 1-12.
- Vigoda‐Gadot, E. (2007). Leadership style, organizational politics, and employees' performance: An empirical examination of two competing models. Personnel Review.
- Yammarino, F. J., Spangler, W. D., & Dubinsky, A. J. (1998). Transformational and contingent reward leadership: Individual, dyad, and group levels of analysis. The Leadership Quarterly, 9(1), 27-54.
- Zafar, M., Karim, E., & Abbas, O. (2017).“Factors of Workplace Environment that Affects Employee Performance in an Organization”: A study on Greenwich University of Karachi.
- Zafar, Z., & Ali, S. (2018). Education System of Pakistan: Social Functions and Challenges. Journal of Indian Studies, 4(1), 31-51.
- Zamin A. S. and Hussin, F. (2021). Effect of Leadership Styles and Work Climate on Job Performance: A Mediating Role of Organizational Commitment among University Lecturers in Pakistan. Elementary Education Online, 20(2), 497-505
- Zubair, D. S. S., Jabeen, N., Salman, D. Y., Zahid, M., &Irfan, D. S. (2019). Governance Context of Higher Education Sector of Pakistan. Pakistan Vision (2019) Vol, 20(1).
- Article View: 208
- PDF Download: 205