Document Type : Research Article



Around 20 ambulance services operated in Karachi; however, the network of Edhi, Chhipa
and Aman ambulance services provides the bulk of patient transport. The study aims to
compare the quality of ambulance service delivery with international standards. With a mixmethod
approach, 357 patients/attendants and key stakeholders participated in the study. The
results revealed a wide range of differences in service quality. Aman services delivery quality
is rated 72% compliant, but it constitutes less than 20% of the share of inpatient
transportation due to limited ambulances while Edhi and Chhipa contribute 80% of patient
transportation, but their service delivery quality is rated only 13%. In the subset of
monitoring, infection control, and medicine, Edhi & Chhipa services meet 0% standards. The
thematic analysis revealed that the primary reasons for the poor quality are lack of legislation
& minimum standards, Poor or no monitoring, financial constraints, and lack of awareness. In
conclusion, the ambulances services operating in the city lacks minimum service quality
standards, thus pose a constant threat to patient life using these services.