Negative Events at Workplace and In Role Performance: Implications of Affective Events Theory (AET)
Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government,
2021, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 2474-2491
AbstractIn health care centers front line nurses are the major people who are responsible for treatment of the patients thus they need highly supportive organization to perform their tasks efficiently and effectively. Workplace bullying has negative outcomes for any type of organization/employee. Thus this needs to be controlled by the management of the concerning organization. Therefore current research is designed to identify the outcomes of workplace bullying for in role performances of specialized nurses in Pakistan. Psychological distress is also great interest of researcher to use it as mediator among workplace bullying and in role performance. By using convenient sampling technique 200 nurses were selected as sample of current study. In current research self-administered questionnaires are used to collect the data. Latest version of SPSS has been deployed for analysis of data. Further MACRO Process by Preacher and Hayes was used to test the mediation of the current research.
Findings revealed that workplace bullying has drastic results for in-role performance of the specialized nurses and it is also found that psychological distress mediates the relationship among workplace bullying and in role performance. The respondents who have explicit presentation, who fill in as specific nursing administrations suppliers' the outcome of this investigation attested that there is an association between workplace bullying, job autonomy. Besides, results exhibited that movement freedom can play positive task to redesign on in role performance. It is furthermore investigated that psychological distress as an arbiter in this examination. There is critical negative relationship among workplace bullying and on in role performance. The association between work place bullying, workers’ in job autonomy and furthermore demonstrated that activity independence can play positive job to upgrade on in role performance.
- Adams, A., & Bray, F. (1992). Holding out against workplace harassment and bullying. Personnel management, 24(10), 48-52.
- Ahmad, S. (2018). Can ethical leadership inhibit workplace bullying across East and West: Exploring cross-cultural interactional justice as a mediating mechanism. European Management Journal, 36(2), 223-234.
- Ahmer, S., Yousafzai, A. W., Siddiqi, M., Faruqui, R., Khan, R., & Zuberi, S. (2009). Bullying of Trainee Psychiatrists in Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Survey. Academic Psychiatry, 3, 335-339.
- Almeida, D. M. (2005). Resilience and vulnerability to daily stressors accessed via diary methods. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14(2), 64-68.
- Appelbaum, S., Semerjian, G., & Mohan, K. (2012). Workplace bullying: Consequences, causes and Controls. Industrial and Commercial Training, 44(4), 203-210.
- Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., & Razavieh, A. (2010). Introduction to research in education. Wardswoth Cengage Learning. Canada: Nelson Education Ltd Exotic Classic.
- Ashford, S., Lee, C. & Bobko, P. (1989). Content, causes, and consequences of job insecurity. A theory-based measure and substantive test. Academy of Management Journal, 32(4), 803- 829.
- Baillien, E., Escartín, J., Gross, C., & Zapf, D. (2017). Towards a conceptual and empirical differentiation between workplace bullying and interpersonal conflict. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26(6), 870-881.
- Balducci, C., Alfano, V., &Fraccaroli, F. (2009). Relationships between mobbing at work and MMPI-2 personality profile, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and suicidal ideation and behavior. Violence and Victims, 24(1), 52-67.
- Baron, R. A., & Neuman, J. H. (1996). Workplace violence and workplace aggression: Evidence on their relative frequency and potential causes. Aggressive Behavior, 22, 161-173.
- Beehr, T. A., Jex, S. M., Stacy, B. A., & Murray, M. A. (2000). Work stressors and coworker support as predictors of individual strain and job performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(4), 391-405.
- Berry, P. A., Gillespie, G. L., Fisher, B. S., Gormley, D., & Haynes, J. T. (2016). Psychological distress and workplace bullying among registered nurses. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 21(3), 4–4
- Berthelsen, M., Skogstad, A., Lau, B., & Einarsen, S. (2011). Do they stay or do they go? A longitudinal study of intentions to leave and exclusion from working life among targets of workplace bullying. International Journal of Manpower, 32(2), 178-193.
- Bilgel, N., Aytac, S., & Bayram, N. (2006). Bullying in Turkish white-collar workers. Occupational medicine, 56(4), 226-231.
- Bono, J. E., & Vey, M. A. (2007). Personality and emotional performance: Extraversion, neuroticism, and self-monitoring. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12, 177-191.
- Brotheridge, C. M., & Lee, R. T. (2002). Testing a conservation of resources model of the dynamics of emotional labor. Journal of occupational health psychology, 7(1), 57.
- Cannell C.F., Miller P., Oksenberg L (1981). Research on interviewing techniques. In: Leinhardt S, editor. Sociological methodology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 389–437.
- De Pedro, M. M., Sánchez, M. I. S., Navarro, M. C. S., & Izquierdo, M. G. (2008). Workplace mobbing and effects on workers' health. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 11(1), 219-227.
- De Vaus, D.A. (2001). Research Design in Social Research. California, CA: Sage.
- Einarsen, S., & Mikkelsen, E. G. (2003). Individual effects of exposure to bullying at work. Bullying and Emotional Abuse in the Workplace. International Perspectives in Research and Practice, CRS Press.
- Einarsen, S., & Nielsen, M. B. (2015). Workplace bullying as an antecedent of mental health problems: a five-year prospective and representative study. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 88(2), 131-142.
- Elsass, P. M. & Veiga, John F. (1997). Job Control and Job Strain: A Test of Three Models. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (2), 3, 195-211.
- Finstad, G. L., Ariza-Montes, A., Giorgi, G., Lecca, L. I., Arcangeli, G., & Mucci, N. (2019). The JDCS model and blue-collar bullying: decent working conditions for a healthy environment. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(18), 3411.
- 24. Fisher, R. A. (1953). "Dispersion on a sphere". Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A. 217 (217): 295–305.
- Fisher-Blando, J. L. (2008). Workplace bullying: Aggressive behavior and its effect on job satisfaction and productivity. University of Phoenix.
- Fried, Y., & Ferris, G. R. (1987). The validity of the job characteristics model: A review and meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 40, 287– 322.
- Gellatly, Ian R. & Irving P., Gregory (2001).Personality, Autonomy and Contextual Performance for Managers. Human Performance, 43(3), 231-238.
- Glambek, M., Skogstad, A., & Einarsen, S. (2018). Workplace bullying, the development
of job insecurity and the role of laissez-faire leadership: A two-wave moderated
mediation study. Work & Stress, 32(3), 1-16.
- Glavin, P., & Schieman, S. (2012). Work–family role blurring and work–family conflict: The moderating influence of job resources and job demands. Work and Occupations, 39(1), 71-98.
- Goodboy, A.K., Martin, M.M. & Bolkan, S. (2017). Workplace bullying and work engagement: a self-determination model. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1-23.
- Grandey, A. A. (2000). Emotional regulation in the workplace: A new way to conceptualize emotional labor. Journal of occupational health psychology, 5(1), 95-110.
- Guba, E. G., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. Handbook of qualitative research, 2(163-194), 105.
- Guest, D.E. (1997). Human resource management and performance: a review and research agenda. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8(3), 263–276.
- Shahid, M. & M. A. Sajid. (2020). Impact of Workplace Bullying on Employee Performance: Mediating Role of Psychological Well-being. International Journal of Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity, 11(1), 2322–2335.
- Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1975). Development of the job diagnostic survey. Journal of Applied psychology, 60(2), 159.
- Hackman, J.R. and Oldham, G.R., 1976. Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory. Organizational behavior and human performance, 16(2), pp. 250-279.
- Hauge, L. J., Skogstad, A., & Einarsen, S. (2010). The relative impact of workplace bullying as a social stressor at work. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 51(5), 426-433.
- Hayes, A. F. (2018). Partial, conditional, and moderated mediation: Quantification, inference, and interpretation. Communication Monographs, 85(1), 4-40.
- Hobfoll, S. E., & Wells, J. D. (1998). Conservation of resources, stress, and aging. In Handbook of aging and mental health (pp. 121-134). Springer, Boston, MA.
- James, R. and Albert, S. (2015), transforming an Australian public organization: a case study using Hirschhorn’s ‘three campaigns’ change model. Business & Management Review, 6(2), pp. 164–171.
- Jauhari, H., Jauhari, H., Singh, S., Singh, S., Kumar, M. & Kumar, M. (2017). How does transformational leadership influence proactive customer service behavior of frontline service employees? Examining the mediating roles of psychological empowerment and affective commitment. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 30 (1), 30-48.
- Khoshnaw, S., & Alavi, H. (2020). Examining the Interrelation between Job Autonomy and Job Performance: A Critical Literature Review. Multidisciplinary Aspects of Production Engineering, 3(1), 606-616.
- Langfred, C.W. and Rockmann, K.W., 2016. The push and pull of autonomy: The
tension between individual autonomy and organizational control in knowledge
work. Group & Organization Management, 41(5), pp. 629-657.
- Laws, K. R., & Bhatt, R. (2005). False memories and delusional ideation in normal healthy subjects. Personality and Individual Differences, 39(4), 775-781.
- Leach, D. J., Wall, T.D., Rogelberg, S.G. and Jackson, P.R., 2005. Team autonomy, performance, and member job strain: Uncovering the teamwork KSA link. International Association Applied Psychology, 54(1), 1-24.
- Lee, J. S., Auyeung, T. W., Kwok, T., Lau, E. M., Leung, P. C., & Woo, J. (2007). Associated factors and health impact of sarcopenia in older Chinese men and women: a cross-sectional study. Gerontology, 53(6), 404-410.
- Lu, J.G., Brockner, J., Vardi, Y. and Weitz, E., 2017. The dark side of experiencing job autonomy: Unethical behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 73, 222-234.
- Lutz, J., Gross, R. T., & Vargovich, A. M. (2018). Difficulties in emotion regulation and chronic pain-related disability and opioid misuse. Addictive behaviors, 87, 200-205.
- Masuda, A., Price, M., Anderson, P. L., Schmertz, S. K., & Calamaras, M. R. (2009). The role of psychological flexibility in mental health stigma and psychological distress for the stigmatizer. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28(10), 1244-1262.
- Mathisen, G. E., Einarsen, S., & Mykletun, R. (2011). The relationship between supervisor personality, supervisors’ perceived stress and workplace bullying. Journal of Business Ethics, 99(4), 637-651.
- Mayhew, R. (2019). What is a corporate leader?
- McCubbin, H. I., & Figley, C. R. (1983). Bridging normative and catastrophic family stress. Stress and the family/edited by Hamilton I. McCubbin & Charles R. Fisley.
- Meyer, R. D., Dalal, R. S., & Hermida, R. 2010. A review and synthesis of situational strength in the Organizational sciences. Journal of Management, 36(1), 121–140.
- Mischel, W. 1977. The interaction of person and situation. Personality at the Crossroads. Current Issues In Interactional Psychology, 333–352.
- Morgeson, F. P., & Campion, M. A. (2003). Work design. In W. C. Borman, D. R. Ilgen, & R. J. Klimoski (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 12, pp. 423– 452). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
- Moriya, J. (2019). Visual-working-memory training improves both quantity and quality. Journal of Cognitive Enhancement, 3(2), 221-232.
- Muraven, M., Tice, D. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (1998). Self-control as a limited resource: regulatory depletion patterns. Journal of personality and social psychology, 74(3), 774.
- Namie, G., Christensen, D., & Phillips, D. (2014). WBI US workplace bullying survey. Workplace bullying institute, 1-19.
- Narayanan, L., Menon, S., & Spector, P. E. (1999). Stress in the workplace: A comparison of gender and occupations. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 20(1), 63-73.
- Nielsen M, Notelaers G, Einarsen S (2011) Measuring exposure to
workplace bullying. In: Einarsen S, et al. (Eds) Bullying and harassment in the workplace: developments in theory, research and practice, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 149–174
- Nielsen, M. B., & Einarsen, S. V. (2018). What we know, what we do not know, and what we should and could have known about workplace bullying: An overview of the literature and agenda for future research. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 42, 71-83.
- Nielsen, M. B., Tangen, T., Idsoe, T., Matthiesen, S. B., & Magerøy, N. (2015). Post-traumatic stress disorder as a consequence of bullying at work and at school. A literature review and meta-analysis. Aggression and violent behavior, 21, 17-24.
- Olweus, D. (1996). Revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. British Journal of Educational Psychology.
- Ortega, A., Christensen, K. B., Hogh, A., Rugulies, R., & Borg, V. (2011). One‐year prospective study on the effect of workplace bullying on long‐term sickness absence. Journal of Nursing Management, 19(6), 752-759.
- Peters, L. H., & O’Connor, E. J. (1980). Situational constraints and work outcomes: The influences of a frequently overlooked construct. Academy of Management Review, 5, 391–397.
- Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879-903.
- Rai, A. & Agarwal, U.A. (2016). Workplace bullying: a review and future research directions. South Asian journal of management, 23(3), 27-56.
- Robert, F. (2018). Impact of workplace bullying on job performance and job stress. Journal of Management Info, 5(3), 12-15.
- Rossiter, L., & Sochos, A. (2018). Workplace bullying and burnout: the moderating effects of social Support. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 27(4), 386-408.
- Saam, N. J. (2010). Interventions in workplace bullying: A multilevel approach. European Journal of Work,5, 1-10.
- Samnani, A.-K. & Singh, P. (2012). 20 years of workplace bullying research: a review of the
antecedents and consequences of bullying in the workplace. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17(6), 581-589.
- Samsudin, E. Z., Isahak, M., & Rampal, S. (2018). The prevalence, risk factors and outcomes of Workplace bullying among junior doctors: A systematic review. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 27(6), 700-718.
- Saragih, S. (2015). The effects of job autonomy on work outcomes: Self efficacy as an intervening variable. International Research Journal of Business Studies, 4(3), 203-215.
- Stelmaschuk, S. (2010). Workplace bullying and emotional exhaustion among registered nurses and non-nursing, unit-based staff (Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University).
- Strandmark, M., & Hallberg, L. M. (2007). Being rejected and expelled from the workplace: Experiences of bullying in the public service sector. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 4(1-2), 1-14.
- Tummers, L., Teo, S., Brunetto, Y., & Teo, S. T. (2016). Workplace aggression. International Journal of Public Sector Management.
- Van den Broek, A., vanteemkiste, M., D. E. WITTE, H., & Lens, W. (2008). Explaining the relationship between job characteristics, burnout and engagement: The role of basic physiological need satisfaction. Work and stress, 22, 277-294.
- Van Heerden, J. (2015). The impact of job demands and job resources on work engagement and turnover intentions within the Information Technology division of a South African bank (Doctoral dissertation, University of the Western Cape).
- Van Jaarsveld, D. D., Walker, D. D., & Skarlicki, D. P. (2010). The role of job demands and emotional exhaustion in the relationship between customer and employee incivility. Journal of Management, 36(6), 1486-1504.
- Verkuil, B., Atasayi, S., & Molendijk, M. L. (2015). Workplace bullying and mental health: a meta-analysis on cross-sectional and longitudinal data. PloS one, 10(8), e0135225.
- Wahyu Ariani (2020) utilizing Structural Equation Modeling. Originate linkage between spirituality and performance, then between perceived autonomy and performance. Wahyu Ariani, D. (2020). Journal of Religion & Society, 22, 1-20.
- Weiss, H. M., & Cropanzano, R. (1996). Affective Events Theory: A theoretical discussion of the structure, causes and consequences of affective experiences at work. In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior: An annual series of analytical essays and critical reviews, Vol. 18 (p. 1–74). Elsevier Science/JAI Press.
- Wiersma, W., & Jurs, S. G. (2005). Research methods in education: An introduction. Boston, MA Ally and Bacon.
- Wilson, B. L., Diedrich, A., Phelps, C. L., & Choi, M. (2011). Bullies at work: The impact of horizontal hostility in the hospital setting and intent to leave. JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration, 41(11), 453-458.
- Wright, T. A., & Cropanzano, R. (1998). Emotional exhaustion as a predictor of job performance and voluntary turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(3), 486–493.
- Xu, T., Hanson, L. L. M., Lange, T., Starkopf, L., Westerlund, H., Madsen, I. E., & Hansen, Å. M. (2018). Workplace bullying and violence as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a multicohort study and meta-analysis. Diabetologia, 61(1), 75-83.
- Yahaya, A., & Ramli, J. (2009). The relationship between self-concept and communication skills towards academic achievement among secondary school students in Johor Bahru. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 1(2), 25.
- Yang, F., & Zhao, Y. (2018). The Effect of Job Autonomy on Psychological Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Personal Initiative. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 6(11), 234-248.
- Zhu, Q., Sarkis, J., & Lai, K. H. (2013). Institutional-based antecedents and performance outcomes of internal and external green supply chain management practices. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 19(2), 106-117.
- Zogby, J. J. (2002). What Arabs think: values, beliefs and concernsZogby International.
- Article View: 82
- PDF Download: 361