Document Type : Research Article
1 Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University,
2 Senior Lecturer,Department of Public Health Dentistry,Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University
3 Senior Lecturer,Department of Prosthodontics,Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University
Tobacco is considered as the greatest disease-inducing substance globally associated with prevalent addictive habits and harmful influence on the behaviour of an individual and public health. Several studies have discussed the association between dental caries and tobacco consumption particularly in terms of smoking habits. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of smoking and chewing tobacco habits and its dependence on prevalence of dental caries. A retrospective study was conducted using case records of University hospital. Descriptive statistics was done to present the distribution of DMFT scores. Chi-square association was done to find the association. A total of 941 consecutive case records with registered DMFT index scores of age above 18 years was retrieved and analysed. All 941 consecutive case records were evaluated in this study. Patients of age group 21-30 years were predominantly seen with tobacco dependence (32.3%) when compared to the other age groups. Tobacco dependence was high with males (97.46%) when compared to females (2.55%). Most of the patients with tobacco dependence had DMFT scores of 0-5 (67.47%). A statistically significant association exists between tobacco dependence with age and gender (p<0.05) but no association with dental caries (p>0.05). Within the limits of the present study, tobacco dependence is associated with age and gender where males of age group 21-30 years show higher tobacco dependence. However, tobacco dependence and dental caries are not associated with more prevalence of dental caries among individuals with very low tobacco dependence.
- Anderson, P. (2006) ‘Global use of alcohol, drugs and tobacco’, Drug and alcohol review, 25(6), pp. 489–502.
- Axelsson, P., Paulander, J. and Lindhe, J. (1998) ‘Relationship between smoking and dental status in 35-, 50-, 65-, and 75-year-old individuals’, Journal of clinical periodontology, 25(4), pp. 297–305.
- Campus, G. et al. (2011) ‘Does Smoking Increase Risk for Caries A Cross-Sectional Study in an Italian Military Academy’, Caries Research, pp. 40–46. doi: 10.1159/000322852.
- Chaitanya, N. et al. (2018) ‘The Prevalence of Dental Caries in Smokers and Smokeless Tobacco Users’, Dental Hypotheses, p. 36. doi: 10.4103/denthyp.denthyp_2_18.
- Clarke, N. G. and Hirsch, R. S. (1995) ‘Personal risk factors for generalized periodontitis’, Journal of clinical periodontology, 22(2), pp. 136–145.
- Corrao, M. A. et al. (2000) ‘Building the evidence base for global tobacco control’, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78(7), pp. 884–890.
- Deogade, S., Gupta, P. and Ariga, P. (2018) ‘Effect of monopoly-coating agent on the surface roughness of a tissue conditioner subjected to cleansing and disinfection: A Contact Profilometric In vitro study’, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, p. 122. doi: 10.4103/ccd.ccd_112_18.
- Dua, K. et al. (2019) ‘The potential of siRNA based drug delivery in respiratory disorders: Recent advances and progress’, Drug development research, 80(6), pp. 714–730.
- Duraisamy, R. et al. (2019) ‘Compatibility of Nonoriginal Abutments With Implants: Evaluation of Microgap at the Implant-Abutment Interface, With Original and Nonoriginal Abutments’, Implant dentistry, 28(3), pp. 289–295.
- Ezhilarasan, D. (2018) ‘Oxidative stress is bane in chronic liver diseases: Clinical and experimental perspective’, Arab journal of gastroenterology: the official publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology, 19(2), pp. 56–64.
- Ezhilarasan, D., Apoorva, V. S. and Ashok Vardhan, N. (2019) ‘Syzygium cumini extract induced reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma cells’, Journal of oral pathology & medicine: official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology, 48(2), pp. 115–121.
- Ezhilarasan, D., Sokal, E. and Najimi, M. (2018) ‘Hepatic fibrosis: It is time to go with hepatic stellate cell-specific therapeutic targets’, Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international: HBPD INT, 17(3), pp. 192–197.
- Gheena, S. and Ezhilarasan, D. (2019) ‘Syringic acid triggers reactive oxygen species-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells’, Human & experimental toxicology, 38(6), pp. 694–702.
- Gibbs, M. (1952) ‘Tobacco and dental caries’, The Journal of the American College of Dentists, 19, p. 3.
- Gomathi, A. C. et al. (2020) ‘Anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous fruit shell extract of Tamarindus indica on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line’, Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, p. 101376. doi: 10.1016/j.jddst.2019.101376.
- Harini, G. and Leelavathi, L. (2019) ‘Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Smoking Cessation-An Overview’, Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, p. 3588. doi: 10.5958/0976-5506.2019.04144.5.
- Hart, A. (1899) ‘Prevention of decay of the teeth 1899; 21:11’, Dental items of interest, 21, p. 11.
- Hellqvist, L. (2012) ‘Smoking, snuffing and oral health with special reference to dental caries’.
- Hirsch, J. M. et al. (1991) ‘Tobacco habits among teenagers in the city of Göteborg, Sweden, and possible association with dental caries’, Swedish dental journal, 15(3), pp. 117–123.
- Jeevanandan, G. and Govindaraju, L. (2018) ‘Clinical comparison of Kedo-S paediatric rotary files vs manual instrumentation for root canal preparation in primary molars: a double blinded randomised clinical trial’, European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry, pp. 273–278. doi: 10.1007/s40368-018-0356-6.
- Jha, P. et al. (2006) ‘Reducing the burden of smoking world-wide: effectiveness of interventions and their coverage’, Drug and Alcohol Review, pp. 597–609. doi: 10.1080/09595230600944511.
- Jitendra K, S. J. (2011) ‘Effects of tobacco on oral cavity’, Journal of dental sciences, 2, pp. 40–41.
- J, P. C. et al. (2018) ‘Prevalence and measurement of anterior loop of the mandibular canal using CBCT: A cross sectional study’, Clinical implant dentistry and related research, 20(4), pp. 531–534.
- Kannan, S. S. D. et al. (2017) ‘AWARENESS AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS MASS DISASTER AND ITS MANAGEMENT AMONG HOUSE SURGEONS IN A DENTAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL IN CHENNAI, INDIA’, Disaster Management and Human Health Risk V. doi: 10.2495/dman170121.
- Kassirer, B. (1994) ‘Smoking as a risk factor for gingival problems, periodontal problems and caries’, University of Toronto dental journal, 7(1), pp. 6–10.
- Khatri, S. G. et al. (2019) ‘Retention of moisture-tolerant fluoride-releasing sealant and amorphous calcium phosphate-containing sealant in 6-9-year-old children: A randomized controlled trial’, Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, 37(1), pp. 92–98.
- K, M. et al. (2013) ‘EFFECT OF TOBACCO ON ORAL-HEALTH AN OVERVIEW’, Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences, pp. 3523–3534. doi: 10.14260/jemds/723.
- Kumar, R. P., Pradeep Kumar, R. and Preethi, R. (2017) ‘Assessment of Water Quality and Pollution of Porur, Chembarambakkam and Puzhal Lake’, Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, p. 2157. doi: 10.5958/0974-360x.2017.00380.8.
- Kumar, R. P., Pradeep Kumar, R. and Vijayalakshmi, B. (2017) ‘Assessment of Fluoride Concentration in Ground Water in Madurai District, Tamil Nadu, India’, Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, p. 309. doi: 10.5958/0974-360x.2017.00063.4.
- Kumar S, Prabu D, Kulkarni S, Dagli RJ (2015) ‘Tobacco as risk factor for periodontal disease in green marble mine laborers of Rajasthan, India’, Braz J Oral Sci, 7, pp. 1641–1647.
- Ludwick, W. and Massler, M. (1952) ‘Relation of dental caries experience and gingivitis to cigarette smoking in males 17 to 21 years old (at the Great Lakes Naval Training Center)’, Journal of dental research, 31(3), pp. 319–322.
- Malli Sureshbabu, N. et al. (2019) ‘Concentrated Growth Factors as an Ingenious Biomaterial in Regeneration of Bony Defects after Periapical Surgery: A Report of Two Cases’, Case reports in dentistry, 2019, p. 7046203.
- Mathew, M. G. et al. (2020) ‘Evaluation of adhesion of Streptococcus mutans, plaque accumulation on zirconia and stainless steel crowns, and surrounding gingival inflammation in primary …’, Clinical oral investigations. Available at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00784-020-03204-9.
- Mathew, M. G. et al. (2020) ‘Evaluation of adhesion of Streptococcus mutans, plaque accumulation on zirconia and stainless steel crowns, and surrounding gingival inflammation in primary molars: randomized controlled trial’, Clinical oral investigations. doi: 10.1007/s00784-020-03204-9.
- Mehta, M. et al. (2019) ‘Oligonucleotide therapy: An emerging focus area for drug delivery in chronic inflammatory respiratory diseases’, Chemico-biological interactions, 308, pp. 206–215.
- Menon, I. and Bhat, N. (2019) ‘Association of passive smoking with dental caries and salivary biomarkers among 5-10 years old children of Muradnagar, Ghaziabad’, Journal of family medicine and primary care, 8(8), pp. 2633–2639.
- Menon, S. et al. (2018) ‘Selenium nanoparticles: A potent chemotherapeutic agent and an elucidation of its mechanism’, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, pp. 280–292. doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.06.006.
- Modéer, T., Lavstedt, S. and Ahlund, C. (1980) ‘Relation between tobacco consumption and oral health in Swedish schoolchildren’, Acta odontologica Scandinavica, 38(4), pp. 223–227.
- Mohapatra, S. et al. (2019) ‘Assessment of Microhardness of Enamel Carious Like Lesions After Treatment with Nova Min, Bio Min and Remin Pro Containing Toothpastes: An in Vitro Study’, Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, p. 375. doi: 10.5958/0976-5506.2019.02832.8.
- Neralla, M. et al. (2019) ‘Role of nutrition in rehabilitation of patients following surgery for oral squamous cell carcinoma’, International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, pp. 3197–3203. doi: 10.26452/ijrps.v10i4.1622.
- Panchal, V., Jeevanandan, G. and Subramanian, E. M. G. (2019) ‘Comparison of post-operative pain after root canal instrumentation with hand K-files, H-files and rotary Kedo-S files in primary teeth: a randomised clinical trial’, European archives of paediatric dentistry: official journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry, 20(5), pp. 467–472.
- Pavithra, R. P., Preethi Pavithra, R. and Jayashri, P. (2019) ‘Influence of Naturally Occurring Phytochemicals on Oral Health’, Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, p. 3979. doi: 10.5958/0974-360x.2019.00685.1.
- Pc, J., Marimuthu, T. and Devadoss, P. (2018) ‘Prevalence and measurement of anterior loop of the mandibular canal using CBCT: A cross sectional study’, Clinical implant dentistry and related research. Available at: https://europepmc.org/article/med/29624863.
- Prabakar, J., John, J., Arumugham, I. M., et al. (2018) ‘Comparative Evaluation of Retention, Cariostatic Effect and Discoloration of Conventional and Hydrophilic Sealants - A Single Blinded Randomized Split Mouth Clinical Trial’, Contemporary clinical dentistry, 9(Suppl 2), pp. S233–S239.
- Prabakar, J., John, J., Arumugham, I., et al. (2018) ‘Comparing the effectiveness of probiotic, green tea, and chlorhexidine- and fluoride-containing dentifrices on oral microbial flora: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial’, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, p. 560. doi: 10.4103/ccd.ccd_659_18.
- Prabakar, J., John, J. and Srisakthi, D. (2016) ‘Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among school going children of Chandigarh’, Indian journal of dental research: official publication of Indian Society for Dental Research, 27(5), pp. 547–552.
- Prabhakar, A. R., Murthy, S. and Sugandhan, S. (2011) ‘Comparative evaluation of the length of resin tags, viscosity and microleakage of pit and fissure sealants - an in vitro scanning electron microscope study’, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, p. 324. doi: 10.4103/0976-237x.91797.
- Pratha, A. A., Ashwatha Pratha, A. and Prabakar, J. (2019) ‘Comparing the effect of Carbonated and energy drinks on salivary pH- In Vivo Randomized Controlled Trial’, Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, p. 4699. doi: 10.5958/0974-360x.2019.00809.6.
- Rajendran, R. et al. (2019) ‘Comparative Evaluation of Remineralizing Potential of a Paste Containing Bioactive Glass and a Topical Cream Containing Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate: An in Vitro Study’, Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clínica Integrada, pp. 1–10. doi: 10.4034/pboci.2019.191.61.
- Rajeshkumar, S. et al. (2018) ‘Biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles usingMangifera indica leaves and evaluation of their antioxidant and cytotoxic properties in lung cancer (A549) cells’, Enzyme and microbial technology, 117, pp. 91–95.
- Rajeshkumar, S. et al. (2019) ‘Antibacterial and antioxidant potential of biosynthesized copper nanoparticles mediated through Cissus arnotiana plant extract’, Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology, 197, p. 111531.
- Ramadurai, N. et al. (2019) ‘Effectiveness of 2% Articaine as an anesthetic agent in children: randomized controlled trial’, Clinical oral investigations, 23(9), pp. 3543–3550.
- Ramakrishnan, M., Dhanalakshmi, R. and Subramanian, E. M. G. (2019) ‘Survival rate of different fixed posterior space maintainers used in Paediatric Dentistry - A systematic review’, The Saudi dental journal, 31(2), pp. 165–172.
- Ramesh, A. et al. (2018) ‘Comparative estimation of sulfiredoxin levels between chronic periodontitis and healthy patients - A case-control study’, Journal of periodontology, 89(10), pp. 1241–1248.
- Reibel, J. (2003) ‘Tobacco and oral diseases. Update on the evidence, with recommendations’, Medical principles and practice: international journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre, 12 Suppl 1, pp. 22–32.
- Samuel, S. R., Acharya, S. and Rao, J. C. (2020) ‘School Interventions-based Prevention of Early-Childhood Caries among 3-5-year-old children from very low socioeconomic status: Two-year randomized trial’, Journal of public health dentistry, 80(1), pp. 51–60.
- Schmidt, H. J. (1951) ‘[Tobacco smoke and the teeth]’, Stoma, 4(2), pp. 111–125.
- Shafey O, Eriksen M, Ross H, Mackay J (2009) The tobacco atlas . Atlanta: American Cancer Society (3).
- Sharma, P. et al. (2019) ‘Emerging trends in the novel drug delivery approaches for the treatment of lung cancer’, Chemico-biological interactions, 309, p. 108720.
- Sharma, S., Mishra, S. K. and Mittal, N. (2018) ‘Influence of tobacco dependence on caries development in young male adults: A cross-sectional study’, Journal of conservative dentistry: JCD, 21(6), pp. 597–601.
- Simón-Soro, Á. et al. (2013) ‘A Tissue-Dependent Hypothesis of Dental Caries’, Caries Research, pp. 591–600. doi: 10.1159/000351663.
- Simón-Soro, A. and Mira, A. (2015) ‘Solving the etiology of dental caries’, Trends in microbiology, 23(2), pp. 76–82.
- Skudutyte-Rysstad, R. et al. (2009) ‘Dental health and disease determinants among 35-year-olds in Oslo, Norway’, Acta odontologica Scandinavica, 67(1), pp. 50–56.
- Sridharan, G. et al. (2019) ‘Evaluation of salivary metabolomics in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma’, Journal of oral pathology & medicine: official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology, 48(4), pp. 299–306.
- Tenovuo, J. and Mäkinen, K. K. (1976) ‘Concentration of thiocyanate and ionizable iodine in saliva of smokers and nonsmokers’, Journal of dental research, 55(4), pp. 661–663.
- Varghese, S. S., Ramesh, A. and Veeraiyan, D. N. (2019) ‘Blended Module-Based Teaching in Biostatistics and Research Methodology: A Retrospective Study with Postgraduate Dental Students’, Journal of dental education, 83(4), pp. 445–450.
- Vellappally, S. et al. (2007) ‘Influence of tobacco use in dental caries development’, Central European journal of public health, 15(3), pp. 116–121.
- Vellappally S, Fiala Z, Šmejkalová J, Jacob V, Shriharsha P (2007) ‘Influence of tobacco use in dental caries development’, Central European journal of public health, 15(3).
- Vijayashree Priyadharsini, J. (2019) ‘In silico validation of the non-antibiotic drugs acetaminophen and ibuprofen as antibacterial agents against red complex pathogens’, Journal of periodontology, 90(12), pp. 1441–1448.
- Vishnu Prasad, S. et al. (2018) ‘Report on oral health status and treatment needs of 5-15 years old children with sensory deficits in Chennai, India’, Special care in dentistry: official publication of the American Association of Hospital Dentists, the Academy of Dentistry for the Handicapped, and the American Society for Geriatric Dentistry, 38(1), pp. 58–59.
- Wahab, P. U. A. et al. (2018) ‘Scalpel Versus Diathermy in Wound Healing After Mucosal Incisions: A Split-Mouth Study’, Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, 76(6), pp. 1160–1164.
- Warren CW, Lea V, Lee J, Jones NR, Asma S, McKenna M. (2009) ‘Change in tobacco use among 13-15 year olds between 1999 and 2008: findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey’, Global health promotion, 16(2), pp. 38–90.
- Winn, D. M. (2001) ‘Tobacco use and oral disease’, Journal of dental education, 65(4), pp. 306–312.
- Zonuz, A. T. et al. (2008) ‘Effect of cigarette smoke exposure on the growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis: An in vitro study’, Nicotine & Tobacco Research, pp. 63–67. doi: 10.1080/14622200701705035.