Document Type : Research Article
1 Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals,Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences Saveetha University,Chennai -77
2 Reader,Department of Pedodontics,Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals,Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences,Saveetha University,Chennai -77
3 Reader,Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics,Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals ,Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences,Saveetha University,Chennai -77
Premature loss of teeth in children leads to space loss and affects arch integrity. Space maintainer and space maintenance is an important part of paediatric dentistry as well as a part of interceptive orthodontics. This study aims to determine the prevalence of band and loop space maintainers among children who are 6-10 years old. Data collection was done from going through 86,000 patient records from June 2019 to April 2020. Total sample size was 44 children who were inserted with a band and loop space maintainer. Chi-square test is done to analyse the significance of the study. The analysis showed that the band and loop space maintainer are more prevalent in 6 year old children and mostly done in female children. The reason for tooth loss was due to extensive caries. However, the study showed positive correlation but there was no significance since p=0.276. Use of space maintainers is an important step in interceptive orthodontics and the study concluded that it is more prevalent in 6 year old children.
- Bahesh, H. Y. A. et al. (2020) ‘BAND AND LOOP SPACE MAINTAINER: A REPORT’, International Journal of Advanced Research, pp. 1286–1291. doi: 10.21474/ijar01/10577.
- Beldiman, M.-A. et al. (2015) ‘Mechanical properties of different types of space maintainers’, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, p. 012059. doi: 10.1088/1757-899x/95/1/012059.
- Beumer, J. et al. (1973) ‘Childhood hypophosphatasia and the premature loss of teeth’, Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, pp. 631–640. doi: 10.1016/0030-4220(73)90028-5.
- Cardoso, L. et al. (2005) ‘Avaliação da prevalência de perdas precoces de molares decíduos’, Pesquisa brasileira em odontopediatria e clinica integrada, 5(1), pp. 17–22.
- Christabel, S. L. and Gurunathan, D. (2015) ‘Prevalence of type of frenal attachment and morphology of frenum in children, Chennai, Tamil Nadu’, World J Dent, 6(4), pp. 203–207.
- Christensen, J. R. and Fields, H. W. (2013) ‘Space maintenance in the primary dentition’, Pediatric Dentistry--Infancy Through adolescence. 5th ed. St Louise, MO: Elsevier Inc, p. 379.
- Deogade, S., Gupta, P. and Ariga, P. (2018) ‘Effect of monopoly-coating agent on the surface roughness of a tissue conditioner subjected to cleansing and disinfection: A Contact Profilometric In vitro study’, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, p. 122. doi: 10.4103/ccd.ccd_112_18.
- Dua, K. et al. (2019) ‘The potential of siRNA based drug delivery in respiratory disorders: Recent advances and progress’, Drug development research, 80(6), pp. 714–730.
- Duraisamy, R. et al. (2019) ‘Compatibility of Nonoriginal Abutments With Implants: Evaluation of Microgap at the Implant-Abutment Interface, With Original and Nonoriginal Abutments’, Implant dentistry, 28(3), pp. 289–295.
- Eshghi, A., Tayaran, S. and Mosleh, H. (2018) ‘The Longevity of Band and Loop and Pontic–Crown Fixed Space Maintainers in Children Aged 4 to 7 Years: A Randomized Controlled Trial’, Dental hypotheses, 9(4), p. 90.
- Ezhilarasan, D. (2018) ‘Oxidative stress is bane in chronic liver diseases: Clinical and experimental perspective’, Arab journal of gastroenterology: the official publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology, 19(2), pp. 56–64.
- Ezhilarasan, D., Apoorva, V. S. and Ashok Vardhan, N. (2019) ‘Syzygium cumini extract induced reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma cells’, Journal of oral pathology & medicine: official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology, 48(2), pp. 115–121.
- Ezhilarasan, D., Sokal, E. and Najimi, M. (2018) ‘Hepatic fibrosis: It is time to go with hepatic stellate cell-specific therapeutic targets’, Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international: HBPD INT, 17(3), pp. 192–197.
- Gheena, S. and Ezhilarasan, D. (2019) ‘Syringic acid triggers reactive oxygen species-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells’, Human & experimental toxicology, 38(6), pp. 694–702.
- Gomathi, A. C. et al. (2020) ‘Anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous fruit shell extract of Tamarindus indica on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line’, Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, p. 101376. doi: 10.1016/j.jddst.2019.101376.
- Govindaraju, L. and Gurunathan, D. (2017) ‘Effectiveness of Chewable Tooth Brush in Children-A Prospective Clinical Study’, Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 11(3), pp. ZC31–ZC34.
- Govindaraju, L., Jeevanandan, G. and Subramanian, E. (2017) ‘Clinical Evaluation of Quality of Obturation and Instrumentation Time using Two Modified Rotary File Systems with Manual Instrumentation in Primary Teeth’, Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 11(9), pp. ZC55–ZC58.
- Govindaraju, L., Jeevanandan, G. and Subramanian, E. M. G. (2017a) ‘Comparison of quality of obturation and instrumentation time using hand files and two rotary file systems in primary molars: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial’, European journal of dentistry, 11(03), pp. 376–379.
- Govindaraju, L., Jeevanandan, G. and Subramanian, E. M. G. (2017b) ‘Knowledge and practice of rotary instrumentation in primary teeth among indian dentists: A questionnaire survey’, Journal of International Oral Health, 9(2), p. 45.
- Gurunathan, D. and Shanmugaavel, A. K. (2016) ‘Dental neglect among children in Chennai’, Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, 34(4), pp. 364–369.
- Jeevanandan, G. (2017) ‘Kedo-S Paediatric Rotary Files for Root Canal Preparation in Primary Teeth - Case Report’, Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 11(3), pp. ZR03–ZR05.
- Jeevanandan, G. and Govindaraju, L. (2018) ‘Clinical comparison of Kedo-S paediatric rotary files vs manual instrumentation for root canal preparation in primary molars: a double blinded randomised clinical trial’, European archives of paediatric dentistry: official journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry, 19(4), pp. 273–278.
- Jitesh, S. and Mathew, M. G. (2019) ‘Space maintainer-A review’, Drug Invention Today, 11. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&profile=ehost&scope=site&authtype=crawler&jrnl=09757619&AN=139402244&h=4SeXEjhKKuUCwiZ0jB7TMkVSH8MlRoJp6y06Hvn8VTK8BMs2THTuCvmsH4tuu6uxnevEX1qaJxtJgzNqqBZ17w%3D%3D&crl=c.
- J, P. C. et al. (2018) ‘Prevalence and measurement of anterior loop of the mandibular canal using CBCT: A cross sectional study’, Clinical implant dentistry and related research, 20(4), pp. 531–534.
- Laing, E. et al. (2009) ‘Space maintenance’, International journal of paediatric dentistry / the British Paedodontic Society [and] the International Association of Dentistry for Children, 19(3), pp. 155–162.
- Lira, A. de L. S. D. et al. (2019) ‘Deciduous tooth early loss prevalence in posterior region and indication of band-loop space maintainer’, Brazilian Dental Science, pp. 321–328. doi: 10.14295/bds.2019.v22i3.1693.
- Mahendran, S. et al. (2017) ‘Status of malocclusion among adults in rural areas’, International Journal of Current Advanced Research, pp. 2958–2960. doi: 10.24327/ijcar.2017.2960.0153.
- Mahesh, R. and Masitah, M. (2018) ‘Fluoride, fluoridated toothpaste efficacy and its safety in children’, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 10(4), pp. 109–114.
- Malli Sureshbabu, N. et al. (2019) ‘Concentrated Growth Factors as an Ingenious Biomaterial in Regeneration of Bony Defects after Periapical Surgery: A Report of Two Cases’, Case reports in dentistry, 2019, p. 7046203.
- Mathew, M. G. et al. (2020) ‘Evaluation of adhesion of Streptococcus mutans, plaque accumulation on zirconia and stainless steel crowns, and surrounding gingival inflammation in primary …’, Clinical oral investigations. Available at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00784-020-03204-9.
- Mehta, M. et al. (2019) ‘Oligonucleotide therapy: An emerging focus area for drug delivery in chronic inflammatory respiratory diseases’, Chemico-biological interactions, 308, pp. 206–215.
- Menon, S. et al. (2018) ‘Selenium nanoparticles: A potent chemotherapeutic agent and an elucidation of its mechanism’, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, pp. 280–292. doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.06.006.
- Nair, M. et al. (2018) ‘Comparative evaluation of post-operative pain after pulpectomy with k-files, kedo-s files and mtwo files in deciduous molars -a randomized clinical trial’, Brazilian Dental Science, p. 411. doi: 10.14295/bds.2018.v21i4.1617.
- Owen, D. G. (1971) ‘The incidence and nature of space closure following the premature extraction of deciduous teeth: A literature survey’, American journal of orthodontics, 59(1), pp. 37–49.
- Packiri, S., Gurunathan, D. and Selvarasu, K. (2017) ‘Management of Paediatric Oral Ranula: A Systematic Review’, Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 11(9), pp. ZE06–ZE09.
- Panchal, V. et al. (2019) ‘Comparison of instrumentation time and obturation quality between hand K-file, H-files, and rotary Kedo-S in root canal treatment of primary teeth: A randomized controlled trial’, Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, 37(1), p. 75.
- Panchal, V., Jeevanandan, G. and Subramanian, E. M. G. (2019) ‘Comparison of post-operative pain after root canal instrumentation with hand K-files, H-files and rotary Kedo-S files in primary teeth: a randomised clinical trial’, European archives of paediatric dentistry: official journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry, 20(5), pp. 467–472.
- Pc, J., Marimuthu, T. and Devadoss, P. (2018) ‘Prevalence and measurement of anterior loop of the mandibular canal using CBCT: A cross sectional study’, Clinical implant dentistry and related research. Available at: https://europepmc.org/article/med/29624863.
- Prabakar, J. et al. (2018) ‘Comparative Evaluation of Retention, Cariostatic Effect and Discoloration of Conventional and Hydrophilic Sealants - A Single Blinded Randomized Split Mouth Clinical Trial’, Contemporary clinical dentistry, 9(Suppl 2), pp. S233–S239.
- Rajendran, R. et al. (2019) ‘Comparative Evaluation of Remineralizing Potential of a Paste Containing Bioactive Glass and a Topical Cream Containing Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate: An in Vitro Study’, Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clínica Integrada, pp. 1–10. doi: 10.4034/pboci.2019.191.61.
- Rajeshkumar, S. et al. (2018) ‘Biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles usingMangifera indica leaves and evaluation of their antioxidant and cytotoxic properties in lung cancer (A549) cells’, Enzyme and microbial technology, 117, pp. 91–95.
- Rajeshkumar, S. et al. (2019) ‘Antibacterial and antioxidant potential of biosynthesized copper nanoparticles mediated through Cissus arnotiana plant extract’, Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology, 197, p. 111531.
- Ramadurai, N. et al. (2019) ‘Effectiveness of 2% Articaine as an anesthetic agent in children: randomized controlled trial’, Clinical oral investigations, 23(9), pp. 3543–3550.
- Ramakrishnan, M., Dhanalakshmi, R. and Subramanian, E. M. G. (2019) ‘Survival rate of different fixed posterior space maintainers used in Paediatric Dentistry - A systematic review’, The Saudi dental journal, 31(2), pp. 165–172.
- Ramesh, A. et al. (2018) ‘Comparative estimation of sulfiredoxin levels between chronic periodontitis and healthy patients - A case-control study’, Journal of periodontology, 89(10), pp. 1241–1248.
- Ravikumar, D., Jeevanandan, G. and Subramanian, E. M. G. (2017) ‘Evaluation of knowledge among general dentists in treatment of traumatic injuries in primary teeth: A cross-sectional questionnaire study’, European journal of dentistry, 11(2), pp. 232–237.
- Samuel, S. R., Acharya, S. and Rao, J. C. (2020) ‘School Interventions-based Prevention of Early-Childhood Caries among 3-5-year-old children from very low socioeconomic status: Two-year randomized trial’, Journal of public health dentistry, 80(1), pp. 51–60.
- Sasa, I. S., Hasan, A. A. and Qudeimat, M. A. (2009) ‘Longevity of band and loop space maintainers using glass ionomer cement: a prospective study’, European archives of paediatric dentistry: official journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry, 10(1), pp. 6–10.
- Satyaprasad, S. et al. (no date) ‘Revascularization of an immature Permanent molar with necrotic pulp and apical periodontitis using MTA: A case report’, academia.edu. Available at: http://www.academia.edu/download/47279879/IJOHD_22_114-118.pdf.
- Sharma, P. et al. (2019) ‘Emerging trends in the novel drug delivery approaches for the treatment of lung cancer’, Chemico-biological interactions, 309, p. 108720.
- Shulman, E. (2011) ‘Fabrication of a Band and Loop Space Maintainer’, MedEdPORTAL. doi: 10.15766/mep_2374-8265.8137.
- Somasundaram, S. et al. (2015) ‘Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Water in Chennai, Tamilnadu’, Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 9(10), pp. ZC32–4.
- de Souza, R. A. et al. (2016) ‘Prevalence of malocclusion in a brazilian schoolchildren population and its relationship with early tooth loss’, Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences, pp. 1566–1570.
- Sridharan, G. et al. (2019) ‘Evaluation of salivary metabolomics in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma’, Journal of oral pathology & medicine: official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology, 48(4), pp. 299–306.
- Subramanyam, D. et al. (2018) ‘Comparative evaluation of salivary malondialdehyde levels as a marker of lipid peroxidation in early childhood caries’, European journal of dentistry, 12(1), pp. 67–70.
- Tagliaferro, E. P. da S. and Guirado, C. G. (2002) ‘Manutenção de espaço após perda precoce de dentes decíduos’, RFO UPF, 7(2), pp. 13–17.
- Varghese, S. S., Ramesh, A. and Veeraiyan, D. N. (2019) ‘Blended Module-Based Teaching in Biostatistics and Research Methodology: A Retrospective Study with Postgraduate Dental Students’, Journal of dental education, 83(4), pp. 445–450.
- Vijayashree Priyadharsini, J. (2019) ‘In silico validation of the non-antibiotic drugs acetaminophen and ibuprofen as antibacterial agents against red complex pathogens’, Journal of periodontology, 90(12), pp. 1441–1448.
- Vishnu Prasad, S. et al. (2018) ‘Report on oral health status and treatment needs of 5-15 years old children with sensory deficits in Chennai, India’, Special care in dentistry: official publication of the American Association of Hospital Dentists, the Academy of Dentistry for the Handicapped, and the American Society for Geriatric Dentistry, 38(1), pp. 58–59.
- Wahab, P. U. A. et al. (2018) ‘Scalpel Versus Diathermy in Wound Healing After Mucosal Incisions: A Split-Mouth Study’, Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, 76(6), pp. 1160–1164.