Document Type : Research Article
1 Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai-77
2 Reader, Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai-77
3 Reader, Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai-77
This study aimed to evaluate the periodontal health status of 8-12-year-old school going children. A retrospective study was conducted amongst 2736 school going children aged 8-12 years reporting to a dental hospital in Chennai for treatment from June 2019 to March 2020. Digital case records of 2736 children were reviewed and the data was extracted. Data analysis was done using IBM SPSS Software Version 20.0 to run Chi square tests. The results revealed the overall prevalence of gingivitis amongst the 8-12 year old children to be 53.7% with 0.3% having periodontitis and 46% of children with clinically healthy gingiva. The study also found a significant relation between the diagnosis of periodontal health and age of the patients with p<0.001. No relation was established between gender and state of periodontal health.The study found the percentage of gingivitis to be 53.7% and periodontitis to be 0.3% in 8-12-year-old school going children.
- Albandar, J. M., Brown, L. J. and Löe, H. (1997) ‘Clinical features of early-onset periodontitis’, Journal of the American Dental Association , 128(10), pp. 1393–1399.
- AlGhamdi, A. et al. (2020) ‘Prevalence of periodontitis in high school children in Saudi Arabia: a national study’, Annals of Saudi medicine, 40(1), pp. 7–14.
- Al‐Haddad, K. A. and Al‐Hebshi, N. N. (2010) ‘Oral health status and treatment needs among school children in Sana’a City, Yemen’, International journal of. Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1601-5037.2009.00398.x.
- Ballouk, M. A.-H. and Dashash, M. (2018) ‘The gingival health status of 8-12 year-old children in Damascus city in Syria during the Syrian Crisis: a cross-sectional epidemiological oral health survey’, BMC research notes, 11(1), p. 887.
- Califano, J. V., American Academy of Periodontology--Research, Science and Therapy Committee and American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (2005) ‘Periodontal diseases of children and adolescents’, Pediatric dentistry, 27(7 Suppl), pp. 189–196.
- Chestnutt, I. G. et al. (1998) ‘The influence of toothbrushing frequency and post-brushing rinsing on caries experience in a caries clinical trial’, Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, pp. 406–411. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1998.tb01979.x.
- Christabel, S. L. and Linda Christabel, S. (2015) ‘Prevalence of Type of Frenal Attachment and Morphology of Frenum in Children, Chennai, Tamil Nadu’, World Journal of Dentistry, pp. 203–207. doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1343.
- Deogade, S., Gupta, P. and Ariga, P. (2018) ‘Effect of monopoly-coating agent on the surface roughness of a tissue conditioner subjected to cleansing and disinfection: A Contact Profilometric In vitro study’, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, p. 122. doi: 10.4103/ccd.ccd_112_18.
- Dua, K. et al. (2019) ‘The potential of siRNA based drug delivery in respiratory disorders: Recent advances and progress’, Drug development research, 80(6), pp. 714–730.
- Duraisamy, R. et al. (2019) ‘Compatibility of Nonoriginal Abutments With Implants: Evaluation of Microgap at the Implant-Abutment Interface, With Original and Nonoriginal Abutments’, Implant dentistry, 28(3), pp. 289–295.
- El-Qaderi, S. S. and Quteish Ta’ani, D. (2006) ‘Dental plaque, caries prevalence and gingival conditions of 14--15-year-old schoolchildren in Jerash District, Jordan’, International journal of dental hygiene, 4(3), pp. 150–153.
- Ezhilarasan, D. (2018) ‘Oxidative stress is bane in chronic liver diseases: Clinical and experimental perspective’, Arab journal of gastroenterology: the official publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology, 19(2), pp. 56–64.
- Ezhilarasan, D., Apoorva, V. S. and Ashok Vardhan, N. (2019) ‘Syzygium cumini extract induced reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma cells’, Journal of oral pathology & medicine: official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology, 48(2), pp. 115–121.
- Ezhilarasan, D., Sokal, E. and Najimi, M. (2018) ‘Hepatic fibrosis: It is time to go with hepatic stellate cell-specific therapeutic targets’, Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international: HBPD INT, 17(3), pp. 192–197.
- Farah, H. H. and Ghandour, I. A. (2009) ‘Periodontal health status of 12-year-old Sudanese schoolchildren and educational level of parents in Khartoum province’, Odonto-stomatologie tropicale= Tropical. Available at: https://europepmc.org/abstract/med/20441126.
- ‘Fluoride, Fluoridated Toothpaste Efficacy And Its Safety In Children - Review’ (2018) International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 10(04). doi: 10.31838/ijpr/2018.10.04.017.
- Gheena, S. and Ezhilarasan, D. (2019) ‘Syringic acid triggers reactive oxygen species-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells’, Human & experimental toxicology, 38(6), pp. 694–702.
- Gomathi, A. C. et al. (2020) ‘Anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous fruit shell extract of Tamarindus indica on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line’, Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, p. 101376. doi: 10.1016/j.jddst.2019.101376.
- Goswami, S. and Saha, S. (2017) ‘The prevalence of gingivitis and periodontal diseases in preschool children in Kolkata’, Indian Journal of Multidisciplinary Dentistry, 7(1), p. 3.
- Govindaraju, L. and Gurunathan, D. (2017) ‘Effectiveness of Chewable Tooth Brush in Children-A Prospective Clinical Study’, Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 11(3), pp. ZC31–ZC34.
- Govindaraju, L., Jeevanandan, G. and Subramanian, E. (2017) ‘Clinical Evaluation of Quality of Obturation and Instrumentation Time using Two Modified Rotary File Systems with Manual Instrumentation in Primary Teeth’, Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 11(9), pp. ZC55–ZC58.
- Govindaraju, L., Jeevanandan, G. and Subramanian, E. M. G. (2017a) ‘Comparison of quality of obturation and instrumentation time using hand files and two rotary file systems in primary molars: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial’, European Journal of Dentistry, pp. 376–379. doi: 10.4103/ejd.ejd_345_16.
- Govindaraju, L., Jeevanandan, G. and Subramanian, E. M. G. (2017b) ‘Knowledge and practice of rotary instrumentation in primary teeth among indian dentists: A questionnaire survey’, Journal of International Oral Health, 9(2), p. 45.
- Gurunathan, D. and Shanmugaavel, A. K. (2016) ‘Dental neglect among children in Chennai’, Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, 34(4), pp. 364–369.
- Jeevanandan, G. (2017) ‘Kedo-S Paediatric Rotary Files for Root Canal Preparation in Primary Teeth - Case Report’, Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 11(3), pp. ZR03–ZR05.
- Jeevanandan, G. and Govindaraju, L. (2018) ‘Clinical comparison of Kedo-S paediatric rotary files vs manual instrumentation for root canal preparation in primary molars: a double blinded randomised clinical trial’, European archives of paediatric dentistry: official journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry, 19(4), pp. 273–278.
- J, P. C. et al. (2018) ‘Prevalence and measurement of anterior loop of the mandibular canal using CBCT: A cross sectional study’, Clinical implant dentistry and related research, 20(4), pp. 531–534.
- Kelly, J. E. and Sanchez, M. J. (1972) ‘Periodontal disease and oral hygiene among children. United States’, Vital and health statistics. Series 11, Data from the national health survey, (117), pp. 1–28.
- Ketabi, M., Tazhibi, M. and Moheb, R. S. (2006) ‘The Prevalance and Risk Factors of Gingivitis Among the Children Referred to Isfahan Islamic Azad University (Khorasgan Branch) Dental School, In Iran’. Available at: https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=109831.
- Malli Sureshbabu, N. et al. (2019) ‘Concentrated Growth Factors as an Ingenious Biomaterial in Regeneration of Bony Defects after Periapical Surgery: A Report of Two Cases’, Case reports in dentistry, 2019, p. 7046203.
- Mathew, M. G. et al. (2020) ‘Evaluation of adhesion of Streptococcus mutans, plaque accumulation on zirconia and stainless steel crowns, and surrounding gingival inflammation in primary …’, Clinical oral investigations. Available at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00784-020-03204-9.
- McDonald, R. E., Avery, D. R. and Dean, J. A. (2004) ‘Dentistry for the child and Adolescent. St’, Louis, Missouri: Mosby.
- Mehta, M. et al. (2019) ‘Oligonucleotide therapy: An emerging focus area for drug delivery in chronic inflammatory respiratory diseases’, Chemico-biological interactions, 308, pp. 206–215.
- Menon, S. et al. (2018) ‘Selenium nanoparticles: A potent chemotherapeutic agent and an elucidation of its mechanism’, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, pp. 280–292. doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.06.006.
- Nguyen, L. et al. (2008) ‘Should we brush twice a day? Determinants of dental health among young adults in Finland’, Health Economics, pp. 267–286. doi: 10.1002/hec.1258.
- Packiri, S., Gurunathan, D. and Selvarasu, K. (2017) ‘Management of Paediatric Oral Ranula: A Systematic Review’, Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 11(9), pp. ZE06–ZE09.
- Panchal, V., Jeevanandan, G. and Subramanian, E. M. G. (2019) ‘Comparison of instrumentation time and obturation quality between hand K-file, H-files, and rotary Kedo-S in root canal treatment of primary teeth: A randomized controlled trial’, Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, p. 75. doi: 10.4103/jisppd.jisppd_72_18.
- Panchal, V., Jeevanandan, G. and Subramanian, E. M. G. (2019) ‘Comparison of post-operative pain after root canal instrumentation with hand K-files, H-files and rotary Kedo-S files in primary teeth: a randomised clinical trial’, European archives of paediatric dentistry: official journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry, 20(5), pp. 467–472.
- Paolantonio, M. et al. (2000) ‘Prevalence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and clinical conditions in children and adolescents from rural and urban areas of central Italy’, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, pp. 549–557. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-051x.2000.027008549.x.
- Pc, J., Marimuthu, T. and Devadoss, P. (2018) ‘Prevalence and measurement of anterior loop of the mandibular canal using CBCT: A cross sectional study’, Clinical implant dentistry and related research. Available at: https://europepmc.org/article/med/29624863.
- Prabakar, J. et al. (2018) ‘Comparative Evaluation of Retention, Cariostatic Effect and Discoloration of Conventional and Hydrophilic Sealants - A Single Blinded Randomized Split Mouth Clinical Trial’, Contemporary clinical dentistry, 9(Suppl 2), pp. S233–S239.
- Rajendran, R. et al. (2019) ‘Comparative Evaluation of Remineralizing Potential of a Paste Containing Bioactive Glass and a Topical Cream Containing Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate: An in Vitro Study’, Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clínica Integrada, pp. 1–10. doi: 10.4034/pboci.2019.191.61.
- Rajeshkumar, S. et al. (2018) ‘Biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles usingMangifera indica leaves and evaluation of their antioxidant and cytotoxic properties in lung cancer (A549) cells’, Enzyme and microbial technology, 117, pp. 91–95.
- Rajeshkumar, S. et al. (2019) ‘Antibacterial and antioxidant potential of biosynthesized copper nanoparticles mediated through Cissus arnotiana plant extract’, Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology, 197, p. 111531.
- Ramadurai, N. et al. (2019) ‘Effectiveness of 2% Articaine as an anesthetic agent in children: randomized controlled trial’, Clinical oral investigations, 23(9), pp. 3543–3550.
- Ramakrishnan, M., Dhanalakshmi, R. and Subramanian, E. M. G. (2019) ‘Survival rate of different fixed posterior space maintainers used in Paediatric Dentistry - A systematic review’, The Saudi dental journal, 31(2), pp. 165–172.
- Ramesh, A. et al. (2018) ‘Comparative estimation of sulfiredoxin levels between chronic periodontitis and healthy patients - A case-control study’, Journal of periodontology, 89(10), pp. 1241–1248.
- Ravikumar, D., Jeevanandan, G. and Subramanian, E. M. G. (2017) ‘Evaluation of knowledge among general dentists in treatment of traumatic injuries in primary teeth: A cross-sectional questionnaire study’, European journal of dentistry, 11(2), pp. 232–237.
- Rodan, R. et al. (2015) ‘Prevalence and severity of gingivitis in school students aged 6–11 years in Tafelah Governorate, South Jordan: results of the survey executed by National Woman’s Health Care Center’, BMC Research Notes. doi: 10.1186/s13104-015-1532-y.
- Russell, A. L. (1971) ‘The prevalence of periodontal disease in different populations during the circumpubertal period’, Journal of periodontology, 42(8), pp. 508–512.
- Samuel, S. R., Acharya, S. and Rao, J. C. (2020) ‘School Interventions-based Prevention of Early-Childhood Caries among 3-5-year-old children from very low socioeconomic status: Two-year randomized trial’, Journal of public health dentistry, 80(1), pp. 51–60.
- Sharma, P. et al. (2019) ‘Emerging trends in the novel drug delivery approaches for the treatment of lung cancer’, Chemico-biological interactions, 309, p. 108720.
- Somasundaram, S. et al. (2015) ‘Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Water in Chennai, Tamilnadu’, Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 9(10), pp. ZC32–4.
- Sridharan, G. et al. (2019) ‘Evaluation of salivary metabolomics in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma’, Journal of oral pathology & medicine: official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology, 48(4), pp. 299–306.
- Subramanyam, D. et al. (2018) ‘Comparative evaluation of salivary malondialdehyde levels as a marker of lipid peroxidation in early childhood caries’, European journal of dentistry, 12(1), pp. 67–70.
- Susin, C. et al. (2011) ‘Prevalence and risk indicators for chronic periodontitis in adolescents and young adults in south Brazil’, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, pp. 326–333. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051x.2011.01699.x.
- Taani, D. Q. (2002) ‘Relationship of socioeconomic background to oral hygiene, gingival status, and dental caries in children’, Quintessence international , 33(3), pp. 195–198.
- Varghese, S. S., Ramesh, A. and Veeraiyan, D. N. (2019) ‘Blended Module-Based Teaching in Biostatistics and Research Methodology: A Retrospective Study with Postgraduate Dental Students’, Journal of dental education, 83(4), pp. 445–450.
- Vijayashree Priyadharsini, J. (2019) ‘In silico validation of the non-antibiotic drugs acetaminophen and ibuprofen as antibacterial agents against red complex pathogens’, Journal of periodontology, 90(12), pp. 1441–1448.
- Vishnu Prasad, S. et al. (2018) ‘Report on oral health status and treatment needs of 5-15 years old children with sensory deficits in Chennai, India’, Special care in dentistry: official publication of the American Association of Hospital Dentists, the Academy of Dentistry for the Handicapped, and the American Society for Geriatric Dentistry, 38(1), pp. 58–59.
- Wahab, P. U. A. et al. (2018) ‘Scalpel Versus Diathermy in Wound Healing After Mucosal Incisions: A Split-Mouth Study’, Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, 76(6), pp. 1160–1164.
- Website (no date). Available at: Website (n.d.). Available at: NAIR M, JEEVANANDAN G, Vignesh R, Subramanian EMG. Assessing the quality of root canal filling and instrumentation time using kedo-s files, reciprocating files and kfiles. Braz Dent Sci 2020; 23(1):1-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.14295/bds.2020.v23i1.1822 (accessed 3 June 2020b (Accessed: 10 June 2020).