Document Type : Research Article
Professor in Research, Institute of Finance and International Management (IFIM), KIADB Industrial Area, Electronic City Phase I, Bangalore -560 100
Ever since the commencement of urbanization in India, slums have been co-existed in the urban areas, especially in the major cities. The incidence of slum is spread across almost all the states of the Union of India at varied levels. In fact, the number of slums and the incidence are at alarming level in the case of a group of states. The public efforts for development of the urban slums to make them human settlement friendly and then an integral part of urban life have had many setbacks. They mainly include the ad hoc approaches which were in vogue till the end of Tenth Five Year Plan. Lack of public policy commitment coupled with inadequate public finance, concerted efforts for the improvement of housing and living conditions of the slum dwellers have been the major impediments. But the national consensus evolved from late 90s heralded several initiatives to achieve slum-free urban India, which has brought considerable improvement. Under the windfall, slums have put up a decent level of achievements, in terms of the development of the living standard, access to housing amenities, degraded environment and marginalising the development gaps. Although slums have achieved better performance than their hosts (urban areas) but not only the overall development interventions must be stepped up but have to still go a long way. Achieving slum-free urban India is a gigantic task that needs huge investment not just from the government but also from others as well. Given the challenging considerations, this research offers a few policy implications like other corporate players part, integrated approach for both development of housing and amenities as well to improve the degraded environment, vigilant role of urban local bodies to mainstream the urban slums.
- Chandrasekhar. S (2005), Growth of Slums, Availability of Infrastructure and Demographic Outcomes in Slums: Evidence from India- A paper presented during the session on Urbanization in Developing Countries at the Population Association of America’s Annual Meeting, Philadelphia: USA
- Cherunilam, Francis and O D Heggade (1987), Housing in India (First Edition), Himalaya Publishing House: Bombay.
- Government of India (1956), Housing (Chapter XXVI), Second Five Year Plan, Planning Commission, New Delhi: pp 555-569.
- Government of India (2003), Draft National Slum Policy, Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, New Delhi.
- Governments of India (2007), Rajiv Awas Yojana - Guidelines for Slum-free City Planning, Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, New Delhi.
- Government of India (2003), Report of the Committee on Slum Statistics/Census, Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, New Delhi.
- Gupta, Devendra, B (1985), Urban Housing in India, World Bank Staff Working Papers (Number 730), The World Bank: Washington D.C., USA.
- Habitat (1976), Report of United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, New York.
- -------- (1996), An Urbanizing World, Global Report on Human Settlements, Oxford University Press: New York
- -------- (1998), Shelter for All: The Global Shelter Strategy to the Year 2000, United Nations Centre for Human Settlement: Nairobi.
- --------- (2003), The Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements, United Nations Human Settlement Programme, London: Earthscan.
- MHUPA (2014), Inclusive Urban Planning: State of the Urban Poor Report 2013, Oxford University Press, Government of India: New Delhi.
- NBO (1988), Housing Needs, National Buildings Organisation, New Delhi.
- NIUA (1988), State of India’s Urbanisation, National Institute of Urban Affairs: New Delhi.
- NSSO (2002), Conditions of Urban Slums, NSS 58th Round, Government of India, New Delhi.
- NSSO (2009), Some Characteristics of Urban Slums, NSS 65th Round, Government of India, New Delhi.
- NSSO (2013), Key Indicators of Urban Slums in India, NSS 69th Round, Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation, Government of India, New Delhi.
- Roy, Ananya (2014), The Inclusive City ….., Inclusive Urban Planning: State of the Urban Poor Report 2013, Oxford University Press, Government of India: New Delhi. Pp 134-147.
- Sen, Kunal (2014), Inclusive Growth, Social Exclusion, and the Urban Poor, Inclusive Urban Planning: State of the Urban Poor Report 2013, Oxford University Press, Government of India: New Delhi. Pp 97-115.
- Seetharamu, Kala Sridhar & Venugopala Reddy A (2014), Contribution of the Urban Poor, Inclusive Urban Planning: State of the Urban Poor Report 2013, Oxford University Press, Government of India: New Delhi. Pp 248-264.
- Shivalingappa B.K (1975), Slum Clearance Related Problems and Programmes, Housing in Karnataka, (Ed) Administrative Training Institute, Mysore.
- Singh, Andrea Menefee (1978), Poverty and Slum Dwellers in Urban India-Some Urgent Research and Policy considerations, Social Action, April-June, p.165.